Sulfa drugs, also known as antibacterial sulphonamides, are synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain sulphonamide substances. There are many examples of sulfa drugs, and it is good to be familiar with what one does before you take it. Some of them are antibiotics, which are used to kill bacteria by attacking them. These can be short-acting, like sulfamethoxazole or sulfisomidine. The former is often used as an alternative to amoxicillin when treating sinusitis.
It will also be used to treat pneumocystis and toxoplasmosis. The latter is also known as sulphasomidine, and is used in similar ways. There are also intermediate-acting antibiotics, such as Sulfacetamide and Sulfadoxine. Sulfacetamide is often used to treat skin conditions such as rosacea, and can be bought in different forms such as cream, foam, washes and shampoo. Sulfadoxine is often used to treat various conditions in livestock, and can be used in conjunction with other things such as pyrimethamine to help prevent or treat malaria. There are also ophthalmologicals which are antibiotics that deal with the eye. In terms of sulfa drugs, these are things such as dichlorphenamide and dorzolamide.
There are also diuretics, which prompt urination. These include things such as acetazolamide which is used to treat things such as glaucoma, benign intracranial hypertension and epileptic seizures. There is also bumetanide, which helps treat heart failure. Chlorthalidone helps patients with hypertension, although it is less effective in those with renal diseases. Furosemide helps those with congestive heart failure and edema, and is also used to help prevent race horses from bleeding through the nose during races.
Hydrochlorothiazide acts as a diuretic which helps reduce the volume of blood, which assists in relieving peripheral vascular resistance. Indapamide helps with both hypertension and decompressed cardiac failure. Mefruside is another diuretic that helps treat edema and hypertension. Metolazone helps treat high blood pressure and congestive heart failure by reducing the amount of water absorbed into the blood stream, which is, of course, where it being a diurectic becomes useful.
Xipamide is, once again, treated for hypertension and oedema. Diuretics work as such a good treatment for hypertension because the triggering of the kidneys to release water from the body means that there is less fluid creating the tension. Sulfa drugs also come in the form of anticonvulsants, which are used to help prevent epileptic seizures.
Acetazolamide is one of these as well as a diuretic. Ethoxzolamide is also a diuretic and can be used to treat ulcers as well as epilepsy. Sultiame differs from other sulphonamide drugs because it does not have any antibacterial activity. Zonisamide is used in adjunctive therapy for seizures of various kinds, including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, myoclonic seizures and infantile spasms. Mafenide is a dermatological which means that the drug helps treat issues such as skin problems. Mafenide assists in particular with burns, and is generally used in adjunctive therapy for second and third-degree burns.
There are other miscellaneous sulfa drugs, as well, such as Celecoxib. Celecoxib is an anti-inflammatory drug that is used for such things as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and painful menstruation. Darunavir is a protease inhibitor that is used to treat HIV infection. Probenecid is a drug that increases uric acid secretion and it is used to help with hyperuricemia and gout. It can also inhibit the excretion of other drugs which helps prolong their effects. Sulfasalazine is anti-inflammatory movement that helps with inflammatory bowel disease and rhumatoid arthritis.
It can also reverse the scarring associated with cirrhosis of the liver. Sumatriptan is used in the treatment of migraine headaches and is often used alongside naproxen. It is also possible to have an allergic reaction to sulfa, among other side effects. These include urinary tract disorders, especially due to the diuretics, or haemopoietic disorders or hypersensitivity reactions. There are also things such as porphyria, which affects enzymes in the bio-synthetic pathway.
It causes symptoms that are neurological, including depression and anxiety. It also has physical symptoms such as abdominal pain and vomiting. The allergic reactions can be especially possible when the dosage is large, and can manifest in two ways, which are through Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Stevens Johnson syndrome is a skin condition where cell death means that the epidermis separates from the dermis and it can be life threatening. Signs of it include fever, a sore throat and fatigue so it can often be mistaken for something else and treated accordingly.
Lesions and ulcers will then appear, in the mouth and other areas such as the genital region. Toxic epidermal necrolysis is the detachment of the top layer of skin from the lower layers of skin. Like Stevens Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis can be fatal, and is actually considered a more severe version of the former. This condition affects mucous membranes, in regions such as the mouth, eyes and the genitals, and a symptom includes a couple of weeks of fever. The condition then manifests itself as a rash that covers large parts of the body.
This rash will appear red and can be warm to the touch. The skin will fill with fluid and begin to sag, until it is possible to peel it away from the body. Eyes and mouth can become further affected, with the former becoming swollen and crusted, with a risk of blindness, and the latter being blistered and eroded, which may make eating difficult. Reactions are quite rare among the generally population, although it is worth noting that HIV sufferers will be have a notably higher chance of being affected by an allergic reaction to a sulfa drug.
It is also likely that if you suffer a reaction to one drug, then you will be more likely to suffer from a reaction when using another drug. If you are not taking antibiotic sulphonamides, however, there is a reduced chance of a hypersensitivity reaction. This is thought to be because of two reasons. The first is the N1 heterocyclic ring that is what causes type I hypersensitivity and the second is N4 amino nitrogen that can form reactive metabolites that cause direct immunologic response or cytotoxicity.
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